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Phenotypic and Molecular Characteristics of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Burn Unit

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1Yasser M. Ismail, 1Sahar M. Fayed, 2Fatma M. Elesawy, 3Nora Z Abd El-Halim*,
1Ola S. El-Shimi
1Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University 2Dermatology and Andrology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University
3Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

ABSTRACT

Background: The biggest concern for a burn team is a nosocomial infection in burn patients, which is a significant health issue. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an extremely troublesome drug-resistant bacterium in the world today. We are now faced with rising P. aeruginosa pan-drug-resistant clones in hospital settings. Objectives: To evaluate the distribution of different virulence factors generated by P. aeruginosa isolated from burn wound infections, together with its antimicrobial susceptibility. Methodology: The isolates reported as P. aeruginosa were further tested for the presence of various phenotypic and genotypic virulence factors including (Biofilm formation, lipase, protease, gelatinase, DNase, bile esculin hydrolysis & hemolysin). Also, genes encoding (nan 1 and Exo A) were investigated by PCR using specific primers. All the isolates were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Results: The study reported that toxins and enzymes were expressed by the tested strains in varying proportions; (92.0%) were producing β-hemolysin, lipase (86%), and protease (86%). The formation of biofilm was observed in 84%. Exo A (70%) was the main virulence gene found in the tested strains. Nan 1 gene was identified in 30% of the samples. 82% of MDRPA isolates were found. There is indeed a relationship between biofilm production and drug resistance, as well as the presence of virulence genes (nan 1 and Exo A) were associated with certain patients and burn wounds characteristics as burn size, burn wound depth, length of hospital stays, and socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Correlation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence profiles with burn wounds and patient-related data can be useful in establishing of an appropriate preventive protocol for hospitalized patients with P. aeruginosa burn serious infections. The targeting of these bacterial virulence arsenals is also a promising approach to developing alternative drugs, which act by attenuating the aggressiveness of the pathogen and reducing its potential to cause vigorous infection.

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